Pneumatic technology deals with the study of behavior and applications of compressed air in our daily life in general and manufacturing automation in particular. Pneumatic systems use air as the medium which is abundantly available and can be exhausted into the atmosphere after completion of the assigned task.
Pneumatic control system is a system that uses compressed air to produce power / energy to perform any task Pneumatic systems found in many industrial systems such as food industry, petrochemical and industrial involves robotics.Pneumatic systems requires:Compressed air supply ,Control valve , Connecting tube,Transducer,Pneumatic control system can be controlled manually and automatically .
Important components of a pneumatic system are shown in above fig.
- Air filters: These are used to filter out the contaminants from the air.
- Compressor: Compressed air is generated by using air compressors. Air compressors are either diesel or electrically operated. Based on the requirement of compressed air, suitable capacity compressors may be used.
- Air cooler: During compression operation, air temperature increases. Therefore coolers are used to reduce the temperature of the compressed air.
- Dryer: The water vapor or moisture in the air is separated from the air by using a dryer.
- Control Valves: Control valves are used to regulate, control and monitor for control of direction flow, pressure etc.
- Air Actuator: Air cylinders and motors are used to obtain the required movements of mechanical elements of pneumatic system.
- Electric Motor: Transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy. It is used to drive the compressor.
- Receiver tank : The compressed air coming from the compressor is stored in the air receiver.
These components of the pneumatic system are explained in detail on the next pages.