1570080213  - Friction
1570080213  - Friction

Friction is the resistance to relative motion between two bodies in contact

The Coefficient of Friction: A simple constant of proportionality.

Very Simple Relation: F=µN

µ = F/N = “COF”

Static friction:

Static frictional force will increase to prevent any relative motion up until some limit where motion occurs. It is that threshold of motion which is characterized by the coefficient of static friction. The coefficient of static friction is typically (but not necessary) larger than the coefficient of kinetic friction.

Static friction is friction between two or more solid objects that are not moving relative to each other. For example, static friction can prevent an object from sliding down a sloped surface. The coefficient of static friction, typically denoted as μs, is usually higher than the coefficient of kinetic friction. Static friction is considered to arise as the result of surface roughness features across multiple length-scales at solid surfaces. These features, known as asperities are present down to nano-scale dimensions and result in true solid to solid contact existing only at a limited number of points accounting for only a fraction of the apparent or nominal contact area. The linearity between applied load and true contact area, arising from asperity deformation, gives rise to the linearity between static frictional force and normal force, found for typical Amonton-Coulomb type friction.

The static friction force must be overcome by an applied force before an object can move. The maximum possible friction force between two surfaces before sliding begins is the product of the coefficient of static friction .  The instant sliding occurs, static friction is no longer applicable the friction between the two surfaces is then called kinetic friction.

An example of static friction is the force that prevents a car wheel from slipping as it rolls on the ground. Even though the wheel is in motion, the patch of the tire in contact with the ground is stationary relative to the ground, so it is static rather than kinetic friction.

The maximum value of static friction, when motion is impending, is sometimes referred to as limiting friction, although this term is not used universally.

Kinetic friction:

Kinetic friction, also known as dynamic friction or sliding friction, occurs when two objects are moving relative to each other and rub together (like a sled on the ground). The coefficient of kinetic friction is typically denoted as μk, and is usually less than the coefficient of static friction for the same materials. However,richard feynman comments that “with dry metals it is very hard to show any difference.” The friction force between two surfaces after sliding begins is the product of the coefficient of kinetic friction.

New models are beginning to show how kinetic friction can be greater than static friction. Kinetic friction is now understood, in many cases, to be primarily caused by chemical bonding between the surfaces, rather than interlocking asperities; however, in many other cases roughness effects are dominant, for example in rubber to road friction. Surface roughness and contact area affect kinetic friction for micro- and nano-scale objects where surface area forces dominate inertial forces.

The origin of kinetic friction at nanoscale can be explained by thermodynamics. Upon sliding, new surface forms at the back of a sliding true contact, and existing surface disappears at the front of it. Since all surfaces involve the thermodynamic surface energy, work must be spent in creating the new surface, and energy is released as heat in removing the surface. Thus, a force is required to move the back of the contact, and frictional heat is released at the front.

Angle of friction

For the maximum angle of static friction between granular materials, see angle of repose .

For certain applications it is more useful to define static friction in terms of the maximum angle before which one of the items will begin sliding. This is called the angle of friction or friction angle.

where θ is the angle from horizontal and µs is the static coefficient of friction between the objects. This formula can also be used to calculate µs from empirical measurements of the friction angle.

k friction - Friction


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