Accounting

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Introduction :-

In all activities (whether business activities or non-business activities) and in all organizations(whether business organizations like a manufacturing entity or trading entity or non-business organizations  like  schools,  colleges,  hospitals,  libraries,  clubs,  temples,  political  parties) which require money and other economic resources, accounting is required to account for these  resources.  In  other  words,  wherever  money is involved,  accounting is required to account for it. Accounting is often called the language of business. The basic function of any language is to serve as a means of communication. Accounting also serves this function.

Meaning of accounting :-

Accounting, as an information system is the process of identifying, measuring and communicating the economic information of an organization to its users who need the information for decision making. It identifies transactions and events of a specific entity. An entity means an economic unit that performs economic activities. Business transaction is a transaction  in which money or money’s worth is involved.

Defining of accounting :-

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) which defines accounting as “an art of recording, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events, which are, in part at least, of a financial character and interpreting the results thereof”.

Objective of Accounting :-

Objective of accounting may differ from business to business depending upon their specific requirements. However, the following are the general objectives of accounting

  1. To keeping  systematic  record:  It  is  very  difficult  to  remember  all  the  business transactions that take place. Accounting serves this purpose of record keeping by promptly recording all the business transactions in the books of account.
  2. To ascertain     whether  the  business  operations  have  been  profitable  or  not: Accounting helps in ascertaining result i.e., profit earned or loss suffered in business during a particular For this purpose, a business entity prepares either a Trading and Profit and Loss account or an Income and Expenditure account which shows the profit or loss of the business by matching the items of revenue and expenditure of the some period.
  3. To ascertain the financial position of the business: In addition to profit, a businessman must know his financial position i.e., availability of cash, position of assets and liabilities etc. This  helps  the  businessman  to  know  his  financial  strength.  Financial  statements  are barometers of health of a business entity.
  4. To portray the liquidity position: Financial reporting should provide information about how an enterprise obtains and spends cash, about its borrowing and repayment of borrowing, about its capital transactions, cash dividends and other distributions of resources by the enterprise to owners and about other factors that may affect an enterprise’s liquidity and solvency.
  5. To protect business properties: Accounting provides upto date information about the various assets that the firm possesses and the liabilities the firm owes, so that nobody can claim a payment which is not due to him.

 

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